Ticks and tick-borne diseases of livestock in the middle east and north africa: A review

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Perveen, Nighat
Muzaffar, Sabir Bin
Al-Deeb, Mohammad Ali
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Ticks are important vectors of an array of viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens resulting in a wide range of animal and human diseases. There is limited information in the literature about tick species in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, even though they have suitable climate and vegetation for ticks and their hosts. We reviewed the occurrence of tick species and the pathogens they transmit from the MENA on published papers from 1901–2020. We found taxonomic records of 55 tick species infesting livestock representing the following eight genera: Ornithodoros, Otobius, Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes, and Rhipicephalus. In addition, 15 pathogens were recorded causing diseases of significance, with Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever, theileriosis, babesiosis and anaplasmosis being widely distributed diseases in the region. In recent decades, there has been increasing trends in disease occurrence and movement associated with global movement of humans and global trade of animals. We suggest that disease control and prevention could be achieved effectively through good integration between public health, veterinary medicine and animal management, and ecological approaches. We recommend further research in the areas of tick ecology and tick born-disease transmission. Furthermore, we suggest evaluation and improvement of disease control policies in the region.