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Now showing 1 - 5 of 60
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    Importation of ticks on companion animals and the risk of spread of tick-borne diseases to non-endemic regions in europe
    ( 12/22/2020) Buczek, Alicja ; Buczek, Weronika
    Increased human mobility elevates the risk of exposure of companion animals travelling with their owners or imported from other regions to tick attacks. In this study, we highlight the potential role of dogs and cats taken for tourist trips or imported animals in the spread of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. The Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick, which is a vector of numerous pathogens causing diseases in animals and humans, is imported most frequently from endemic areas to many European countries. Additionally, alien tick species with high epizootic and epidemiological importance can be imported on dogs from other continents. Companion animals play an even greater role in the spread of autochthonous tick species and transmission of tick pathogens to other animals and humans. Although the veterinary and medical effects of the parasitism of ticks carried by companion animals travelling with owners or imported animals are poorly assessed, these animals seem to play a role in the rapid spread of tick-borne diseases. Development of strategies for protection of the health of companion animals in different geographic regions should take into account the potential emergence of unknown animal tick-borne diseases that can be transmitted by imported ticks.
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    Tick Immune System: What Is Known, the Interconnections, the Gaps, and the Challenges
    ( 3/2/2021) Fogaça, Andréa C. ; Sousa, Géssica ; Pavanelo, Daniel B. ; Esteves, Eliane ; Martins, Larissa A. ; Urbanová, Veronika ; Kopáček, Petr ; Daffre, Sirlei
    Ticks are ectoparasitic arthropods that necessarily feed on the blood of their vertebrate hosts. The success of blood acquisition depends on the pharmacological properties of tick saliva, which is injected into the host during tick feeding. Saliva is also used as a vehicle by several types of pathogens to be transmitted to the host, making ticks versatile vectors of several diseases for humans and other animals. When a tick feeds on an infected host, the pathogen reaches the gut of the tick and must migrate to its salivary glands via hemolymph to be successfully transmitted to a subsequent host during the next stage of feeding. In addition, some pathogens can colonize the ovaries of the tick and be transovarially transmitted to progeny. The tick immune system, as well as the immune system of other invertebrates, is more rudimentary than the immune system of vertebrates, presenting only innate immune responses. Although simpler, the large number of tick species evidences the efficiency of their immune system. The factors of their immune system act in each tick organ that interacts with pathogens; therefore, these factors are potential targets for the development of new strategies for the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. The objective of this review is to present the prevailing knowledge on the tick immune system and to discuss the challenges of studying tick immunity, especially regarding the gaps and interconnections. To this end, we use a comparative approach of the tick immune system with the immune system of other invertebrates, focusing on various components of humoral and cellular immunity, such as signaling pathways, antimicrobial peptides, redox metabolism, complement-like molecules and regulated cell death. In addition, the role of tick microbiota in vector competence is also discussed.
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    Tick-borne viruses and biological processes at the tick-host-virus interface
    ( 7/26/2017) Kazimírová, Mária ; Thangamani, Saravanan ; Bartíková, Pavlína ; Hermance, Meghan ; Holíková, Viera ; Štibrániová, Iveta ; Nuttall, Patricia A.
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    Development of a practical framework for sustainable surveillance and control of ticks and tick-borne diseases in Africa
    Nchu, Felix ; Nyangiwe, Nkululeko ; Muhanguzi, Dennis ; Nzalawahe, Jahashi ; Nagagi, Yakob Petro ; Msalya, George ; Joseph, Natala Audu ; Kimaro, Esther Gwae ; Mollel, Margaret ; Temba, Violet ; Harouna, Difo Voukang
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    Pitfalls in tick and tick-borne pathogens research, some recommendations and a call for data sharing
    ( 6/7/2021) Estrada-Peña, Agustín ; Cevidanes, Aitor ; Sprong, Hein ; Millán, Javier
    An understanding of the relationships of ticks and tick-borne pathogens can only be achieved by integrating data from multiple studies. The publication of raw material is a necessary step for wide-area meta-analyses and study design, data collection and reporting require harmonization. This is an opinion paper, not a consensus position, and is open to debate. This work reflects our view about how data should be communicated in mainstream journals. We indicate rules that should be observed in recording weather data, to avoid serendipitous correlations between the density of ticks and climate variables and recommend the inclusion of raw data in reports. We stress the need for standardized methods to collect ticks that cannot be obtained by standard flagging. The reporting of infection rates of pathogens in ticks should avoid conclusions based on pure molecular findings in feeding ticks. Studies demonstrating the vectorial capacity of ticks should not be supported only by molecular surveys of feeding ticks. Vacuous conclusions about vectorial or reservoir status based solely on the finding of genomic material of a pathogen should be discouraged. We stress that phylogenetic studies based on random selection of sequences from GenBank are unsuitable. We firmly support the development of a dedicated server of curated sequences of ticks and pathogens as a standard for future studies.